India - Hofstede Insights
Structured family oriented psychotherapy is not practiced in India at most places to be individualistic, whereas in Asia, Africa, parts of Europe and Latin America Relationships with others are emphasized, while personal autonomy, space. Do you know how recognition is unique in India? India's tendencies toward individualism and personal achievement. Relationships are the key to work in India, where decisions are made based on long-standing emotional ties. . Tanzania, United Republic of, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tokelau. Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine India scores high on this dimension, 77, indicating an appreciation for India, with a rather intermediate score of 48, is a society with both collectivistic and Individualist traits. The employer/employee relationship is one of expectations based on.
Despite pledges of mutual friendship and future cooperation between the two peoples, Chiang argued that while Gandhi's non-violent resistance was not necessarily invalid for the Indian people, it was an unrealistic worldview on a global context; Gandhi, who had at the time insisted on India refraining from participating in any war in any circumstances, in turn later noted that, "I would not say that I had learnt anything, and there was nothing that we could teach him.
Dwarkanath Kotnis and four other Indian physicians traveled to a war-torn China to provide medical assistance against Japanese forces. According to Tibetologist A. Tom Grunfeldthe conference was not government-sponsored, and so Tibet's and the Tibetan flag's presence had "no diplomatic significance". From tothe MTAC also recruited ethnic Tibetan children from India and Nepal to study in Taiwan, with the expectation that they would work for a ROC government that returned to the mainland.
Both sides have aimed to develop ties to counteract Chinese rivalry with both nations.
Vidya Sagar, who worked with families at the Amritsar Mental Hospital in the s, is credited as the father of family therapy in India.
His own writings on the topic are sparse, but he was able to involve families of patients in understanding and taking care of their patients with psychiatric illness, and to support each other through group participation. Mental Health Center, Vellore tried to focus on family education and family counseling on how to deal with the index patient and showed promising results of the family interventions.
The similar practice has been followed at all the GHPUs, which have been established in India over the last 5 decades. These units, though may not be conducing family therapy, are working with family involvement in treatment of the persons with mental illness. Another major boost to family therapy in India occurred in the late s and early s, when the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences NIMHANSBangalore started working actively on family members of patients with psychiatric disorders, which ultimately resulted in the formation of a formal Family Psychiatry Center in Early work from the center showed that families could be taught to cope with their burden through education, counseling and group support in an effective manner.
In the late s, the center developed Indian tools for working in the field of family therapy, notable amongst which are the Family Interaction Pattern Scale, the Family Topology Scale[ 4445 ] and the Marital Quality Scale. At the turn of this century, it became the only center in India to offer formal training and diploma course in family therapy.
The Schizophrenia Research Foundation at Chennai, which works with long-term care and rehabilitation of the chronically mentally ill patients, conducts a family intervention program, focused on education and coping of family members with the illness of the index patient. The Indian Association for Family Therapy, founded sincehas also been working in the field to provide a platform for private therapists.
Effectiveness of family oriented psychotherapy in India Although a significant number of therapists practice family therapy in India in government and private settings, the published literature on the subject is surprisingly sparse.
Most publications are issue based experiential accounts of the practitioners, rather than evidence based merits of particular therapy modalities. Even then, most intervention studies report significant benefits whenever family have been involved in management of psychiatric disorders. Table 2 summarizes the findings of major family intervention studies from India.
Two third of the group did very well or moderately well. Table 3 summarizes the major points of various published studies on family therapy by Indian practitioners in last 15 years, that throw light on the process issues rather than the outcome. Table 3 Open in a separate window Family oriented psychotherapy: Process and issues in practice Ideally, any psychotherapy would include intake process, therapy proper and a termination phase.
Assessment of the family forms an important part of the intake phase and different therapists employ different techniques for the purpose like the three generation genogram; life cycle chart, structural map or the circular hypothesis.
Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy
The three generation genogram diagrammatically lists out the patient's generation and two more related generations and helps to understand trans-generational patterns of interaction.
The life cycle chart explores the functions of the family and roles of different family members. A structural map shows the different subsystems in the family, the power structure and the relations between the family members.
This can show if relations are normal, overinvolved, conflictual or distant. The circular hypothesis generally used in systemic therapy helps to understand the meaning of the symptoms for the patient and the role of the family members in maintaining them.
Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights
As most of these assessment tools were originally developed in the west, they need to be suitably modified for use in the eastern culture. In the last few decades attempts have been to develop culturally sensitive tools to assess Indian family in treatment.
The Family Topology Scale[ 52 ] is a 28 item scale that measures family types, and groups them into the five subtypes of normal, cohesive, egoistic, altruistic and anoxic. Another tool, the Family Interaction Pattern scale,[ 44 ] looks into the developmental phases of the family.
The scale has six subscales looking into leadership, communication, role, reinforcement, cohesiveness and social support. For assessing marital problems in Indian couples two tools are available: Marital Quality Scale[ 46 ] is a more comprehensive instrument for assessing marital problems and looks into 12 dimensions of understanding, rejection, satisfaction, affection, despair, decision making, discontent, dissolution potential, dominance, disclosure, trust and role functioning. Such emic assessment tools are invaluable in understanding the unique problems of the family in our culture.
The therapy proper is the phase, where major work on the family is carried out. The school of therapy used depends on various factors. For example, the degree of psychological sophistication in the family will determine if psychodynamic techniques can be used. The nature of the disorder will also determine the therapy, like the use of behavioral techniques in chronic psychotic illness. Therapist's comfort and training, and the time the family can spare for therapy are other determining factors.
Dynamic approaches generally take months to years, where as focused strategic techniques can bring benefits over a few sessions.
Endo-cultural issues may crop up at the initial phases, which threaten to jeopardize the therapy outcome. The therapist needs to be aware of them and be sensitive and considerate. Although Indian families are more encouraging and supporting of their mentally ill member, the rigid hierarchical structure of Indian families often hinders free communication of thoughts and feelings.
Therefore, the therapist may encounter difficulties in improving family communication pattern. The therapist may come to an impasse, if he attempts to challenge the authority of the father or sides with the wife rather than with the husband in couple's therapy.
Additionally, given the diverse cultural and social background, the therapy needs to be tailored to the needs of individual family, keeping factors such as socio-economic status, educational level and family structure nuclear, transitional, joint, traditional into account. Directive approaches may be more suitable for traditional families, as the therapist is often looked upon as charismatic, authoritarian and in control of the session. Family and couple's conflict arising out of factors such as conflicts in families over dowry, or related to inter-caste marriage; sexual problems arising out of physical separation of couples due to job timing or placement; disagreement about child rearing practices both within couples and intergenerational ; conflicts related to husband's role in sharing in domestic chores for working couples; problems with unsupervised children, and loss or displacement of role or function of the elderly are only a few of the problems unique to modern Indian families.
Parent-child conflict from increased autonomy and individuation of the child are common in nuclear families. In recent times, increased demands on children or adolescents for academic achievements from parents, the culture clash with children going for night-outs, parties, raves and adolescent sexual experimentation have been reported by Indian therapists as common issues while dealing with adolescents.
It might be beneficial for the therapist to understand that in India and other similar collectivistic societies, the concepts of self, attitudes, values and boundaries are defined differently from those of the western world. In collectivistic societies the self is largely defined through the collective identity with family identity forming a significant component of the self-identity. People from collectivist societies often tend to keep their personal problems to themselves, especially if their own opinions and experiences are inconsistent with the conventional wisdom and mores of the family.
Typically, only in severe cases, the people seek support from outsiders, and even then at the cost of significant resistance from other family members, who may perceive help seeking from the therapist as a measure of failure of the family to solve the problem of their member. Collectivist values make each member of the family responsible for the behavior and the life conditions of every other family member, even to the extent of denial of individual needs and aspirations.
In therapy, this often leads to over involvement, lack of privacy and space for the client. Indeed, negative expressed emotions that might hamper therapy and positive expressed emotions that help, have both been found to be more significant predictors of outcome in our country compared to the west.
The concept can be used to help patients understand the process of psychotherapy and identifying one's hidden strengths. He has also emphasized on the use of concepts of Karma and Dharma in psychotherapy.
The termination phase summarizes the original problem, reviews the beneficial changes and patterns of interaction that have emerged through therapy, and stresses on the need for sustaining the improvements achieved. The follow-up sessions may be continued over the next 6 months to a year to ensure that the client therapist bond is not severed too quickly.
These fundamental characteristics of the Indian family remain valid even now despite the changes in the social scenario. From a psycho-therapeutic viewpoint, in collectivistic societies like ours, the family may be a source of the trouble as well as a support during trouble. It is therefore, plausible that the family might also provide solutions of the trouble and indeed, interventions focusing on the whole family rather that the individual often results in more gratifying and lasting outcome.
Sadly, the progress made in the last few decades has been minimal and restricted to few centers only and family therapy has not found popularity amongst the mental health community. Lack of integration of psychotherapy in postgraduate curriculum, lack of training centers for clinical psychologists, and lack of a good model of family therapy that can be followed in the diverse Indian setting are the three cardinal reasons for the apathy.
This does not absolve the mental health professionals from the responsibility of providing solutions for the problems of the family, which seems to have multiplied during the same time.
The Indian family, which often feels bewildered in these times of changed values, changed roles, changed morality and changed expectations is in need of support and is ready for family therapy. If developed enthusiastically, family therapy might be the right tool to not only help the families in need but also to develop a huge resource in community-centered treatment of mental-health problems.
Footnotes Conflict of Interest: Family as a potent therapeutic force. Family theory and therapy.
Textbook of Family and Couples Therapy: Part 1; Chap 1. Cultural concepts for family therapy. Hansen J, Falicov C, editors. Cultural Perspectives in Family Therapy: The Family Therapy Collections.
Ethnicity and Family Therapy.
India–Tanzania relations - Wikipedia
The Guilford Press; Falicov C, Brudner-White L. Shifting the family triangle: The issue of cultural and contextual relativity. The cultural story in multicultural family therapy. A tool for clinicians. Resiliency mechanisms in culturally diverse families.
- India–Taiwan relations
- What about India?
Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families. Preli R, Bernard JM. Making multiculturalism relevant for majority culture graduate students. J Mar Fam Ther. Understanding culture and worldview in family systems: Use of the multicultural genogram.
Couns Ther Couples Fam. India What about India? If we explore the Indian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Indian culture relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal — it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us.
Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. India scores high on this dimension, 77, indicating an appreciation for hierarchy and a top-down structure in society and organizations.
If one were to encapsulate the Indian attitude, one could use the following words and phrases: Real Power is centralized even though it may not appear to be and managers count on the obedience of their team members. Employees expect to be directed clearly as to their functions and what is expected of them. Control is familiar, even a psychological security, and attitude towards managers are formal even if one is on first name basis.
Communication is top down and directive in its style and often feedback which is negative is never offered up the ladder. Individualism The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. India, with a rather intermediate score of 48, is a society with both collectivistic and Individualist traits.
Hiring and promotion decisions are often made based on relationships which are the key to everything in a Collectivist society. The Hindus believe in a cycle of death and rebirth, with the manner of each rebirth being dependent upon how the individual lived the preceding life. People are, therefore, individually responsible for the way they lead their lives and the impact it will have upon their rebirth.