Relationships among Pressure, Temperature, Volume, and Amount
This relationship between temperature and pressure is observed for any sample of gas confined to a constant volume. An example of experimental. Early scientists explored the relationships among the pressure of a gas (P) and its temperature (T), volume (V), and amount (n) by holding two. Consequently, their relatively small volume is insignificant and does not interfere with the relationships of pressure, volume, and temperature.
Gas laws - Wikipedia
Given this wide range of operating conditions, it is critical that a process technologist understand the behavior of gases under extreme conditions. However, as just noted, many processes are carried out under conditions that are anything but normal. In general, the molecules, or atoms in the cases of the inert gases, are widely spaced. Consequently, their relatively small volume is insignificant and does not interfere with the relationships of pressure, volume, and temperature that we refer to as PVT.
But under the extreme conditions of high pressure and low temperature just described, that molecular volume does interfere and causes a gas to behave in a nonideal manner that results in a larger volume.
In addition, certain gases, such as Freon coolants, have strong intermolecular forces between the molecules that make them behave in a nonideal manner under less extreme conditions. Those intermolecular forces can be attractive, repulsive, or both, causing the volume to be smaller or larger. Advanced Material Appendix 4A at the end of this chapter discusses equations of state, most notably the equations and tables dependent upon the critical pressure and critical temperature of a nonideal gas.
It is highly unlikely that a process technologist will ever have to calculate a PVT relationship for a non-ideal gas. However, from time to time he or she may hear terms such as reduced pressure or reduced temperature along with compressibility factor.
Boyle neglected to mention it, but the data he used to derive his law were most likely collected during a period in which the temperature did not experience any significant change. Since the gas needs to be in thermal equilibrium with its environment or some other heat reservoir to maintain an even temperature, the pressure-volume relationship normally applies only to "slow" processes. The marshmallow-vacuum experiment shown above is an example of a "slow" process. The pressure is reduced at a rate slow enough that heat from the environment is able to keep the jar and its contents at nearly room temperature.
Such a transformation that takes place without a change in temperature is said to be isothermal.
Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
Pumping a bicycle tire with a hand pump is an example of a "fast" process. The work done pushing the piston transforms into an increase in the internal energy and thus an increase in the temperature of the air molecules within the pump.
People familiar with hand bicycle pumps will attest to the fact that they get hot after use.
Likewise, when a gas is allowed to expanded into a region of reduced pressure it does work on its surroundings. The energy to do this work comes from the internal energy of the gas and so the temperature of the gas drops. You can experience this yourself without the aid of any apparatus other than your mouth. Purse your lips so that your mouth has only a tiny opening to the outside and blow hard.
During a "fast" process like the ones just described, pressure and volume are changing so rapidly that heat doesn't have enough time to get into or out of the gas to keep the temperature constant.
Such a transformation that takes place without any flow of heat is said to be adiabatic. Let's try another kitchen experiment. Bread dough before and after baking. Increasing the temperature of bread dough increases its volume. Do try this experiment at home.
Gas Laws – The Physics Hypertextbook
Yeast are tiny microorganisms. They are quite possibly the first domesticated animals and, much like dogs and horses, yeast have been bred for different purposes. Just as we have guard dogs, lap dogs, and hunting dog; draft horses, race horses, and war horses; we also have brewer's yeast, champagne yeast, and bread yeast. Bread yeast have been selectively bred to eat sugar and burp carbon dioxide CO2. When wheat flour and water are mixed together and kneaded, the protein molecules are mashed and stretched until they line up neatly to form a substance called gluten that, like chewing gum, is both elastic and plastic.