The Conflict between the Pope and the King during the Middle Ages by Hannah Hullihen on Prezi
The history of the papacy from to was marked by conflict between popes and the Holy Roman Emperor, . of his own choice, engaging those recipients in a feudal relationship with the papacy, or the Holy See, as the feudal lord. Pope Gregory VII goes up against the Holy Roman Emperors, who normally appointed their own bishops, and takes back control. The primary disagreement between Popes and Holy Roman Emperors, which of years between several Popes and Emperors was over division of power. of the Lutheran Reformation on the relationship between the Emperor and the.
In the west, the title of Emperor Imperator was revived inwhich also renewed ideas of imperial—papal cooperation.
The Pope vs. the Emperor
As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. No pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in Under Otto and his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.
The various German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germansafter which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.
The elective monarchy of the kingdom of Germany goes back to the early 10th century, the election of Conrad I of Germany in following the death without issue of Louis the Childthe last Carolingian ruler of Germany. Elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of Francealthough sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors.
History of the papacy (1048–1257)
The process of an election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on the side, which was known as Wahlkapitulationen electoral capitulation. Conrad was elected by the German dukesand it is not known precisely when the system of seven prince-electors was established. A letter of Pope Urban IVin the context of the disputed vote of and the subsequent the interregnumsuggests that by " immemorial custom ", seven princes had the right to elect the King and future Emperor.
- Holy Roman Emperor
The people of the early Middle Ages never saw a textbook of Roman history. They were ignorant of many things which every school-boy to-day knows before he has entered the third grade. But the Roman Empire, which is merely a name to you, was to them something very much alive. They willingly recognised the Pope as their spiritual leader because he lived in Rome and represented the idea of the Roman super-power.
And they were profoundly grateful when Charlemagne, and afterwards Otto the Great, revived the idea of a world-empire and created the Holy Roman Empire, that the world might again be as it always had been.
But the fact that there were two different heirs to the Roman tradition placed the faithful burghers of the Middle Ages in a difficult position. The theory behind the mediaeval political system was both sound and simple. While the worldly master the emperor looked after the physical well-being of his subjects, the spiritual master the Pope guarded their souls. In practice, however, the system worked very badly. The Emperor invariably tried to interfere with the affairs of the church and the Pope retaliated and told the Emperor how he should rule his domains.
Then they told each other to mind their own business in very unceremonious language and the inevitable end was war. Under those circumstances, what were the people to do, A good Christian obeyed both the Pope and his King. But the Pope and the Emperor were enemies. Which side should a dutiful subject and an equally dutiful Christian take?
It was never easy to give the correct answer. When the Emperor happened to be a man of energy and was sufficiently well provided with money to organise an army, he was very apt to cross the Alps and march on Rome, besiege the Pope in his own palace if need be, and force His Holiness to obey the imperial instructions or suffer the consequences.
But more frequently the Pope was the stronger. Then the Emperor or the King together with all his subjects was excommunicated. This meant that all churches were closed, that no one could be baptised, that no dying man could be given absolution— in short, that half of the functions of mediaeval government came to an end.
More than that, the people were absolved from their oath of loyalty to their sovereign and were urged to rebel against their master.
But if they followed this advice of the distant Pope and were caught, they were hanged by their near-by Lege Lord and that too was very unpleasant. Indeed, the poor fellows were in a difficult position and none fared worse than those who lived during the latter half of the eleventh century, when the Emperor Henry IV of Germany and Pope Gregory VII fought a two-round battle which decided nothing and upset the peace of Europe for almost fifty years.
In the middle of the eleventh century there had been a strong movement for reform in the church. The election of the Popes, thus far, had been a most irregular affair. It was to the advantage of the Holy Roman Emperors to have a well-disposed priest elected to the Holy See. They frequently came to Rome at the time of election and used their influence for the benefit of one of their friends. In the year this had been changed.
In the year the College of Cardinals elected a priest by the name of Hildebrand, the son of very simple parents in Tuscany, as Pope, and he took the name of Gregory VII.
His energy was unbounded. His belief in the supreme powers of his Holy Office was built upon a granite rock of conviction and courage.
In the mind of Gregory, the Pope was not only the absolute head of the Christian church, but also the highest Court of Appeal in all worldly matters. The Pope who had elevated simple German princes to the dignity of Emperor could depose them at will. He could veto any law passed by duke or king or emperor, but whosoever should question a papal decree, let him beware, for the punishment would be swift and merciless. Gregory sent ambassadors to all the European courts to inform the potentates of Europe of his new laws and asked them to take due notice of their contents.
Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia
William the Conqueror promised to be good, but Henry IV, who since the age of six had been fighting with his subjects, had no intention of submitting to the Papal will. He called together a college of German bishops, accused Gregory of every crime under the sun and then had him deposed by the council of Worms.
The Pope answered with excommunication and a demand that the German princes rid themselves of their unworthy ruler.
The German princes, only too happy to be rid of Henry, asked the Pope to come to Augsburg and help them elect a new Emperor. Gregory left Rome and travelled northward.