The current focus on a physically active lifestyle in children puts children at increased physical activity-related injury risk. This review set out to summarise the. the issue of whether epilepsy enhances risk of injuries and exercise . Potentially, many seizure precipitating factors exist in relation to physical exer-. More than half of the injured subjects experienced physical activity (PA) epidemic and possible risk factors of physical activity-related injury (PARI) among Chinese . Gender difference existed in choosing PA participation with male students.
Upon enrollment, the health status of subjects was monitored approximately every 5 years by mailed follow-up surveys. A total of 5, men and 1, women returned the survey. After deceased subjects and incorrect addresses were taken into account, the response rate of the survey was 72 percent.
Subjects eligible for this study were adults aged 20—85 years at follow-up who completed the baseline examination and returned a follow-up survey in Analyses were limited to the 4, men and women who returned the survey and had complete data for all study variables. Additional details of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study methods have been described previously 12.
Injury definition An injury was any self-reported muscle, tendon, bone, ligament, or joint injury occurring in the 12 months before the mailed follow-up survey. Subjects not reporting a musculoskeletal injury in the previous 12 months were classified as uninjured. Physical activity Physical activity status was categorized into four mutually exclusive groups according to the usual type of physical activity reported during the preceding 12 months.
Sport participants were those who exclusively engaged in one or more sporting activities e. Subjects were classified into physical activity categories based on their total reported hours per week. The low duration group included subjects with a total physical activity time of less than 1.
The moderate duration group was defined as those subjects who reported 1. These categories correspond with less than 15, 15—45, and greater than 45 minutes per day of physical activity for 5 days per week.
Cardiorespiratory fitness Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed at the baseline clinic visit by walking on a motorized treadmill during a physician-supervised graded exercise examination using the modified Balke testing protocol Subjects were monitored for blood pressure, heart rate, and rhythm by a trained technician before and during the test The treadmill test began at a speed of 3.
The grade was raised to 2 percent during the second minute, and thereafter the grade increased 1 percent every minute for 25 minutes.
At 25 minutes, the grade remained constant and the speed increased 0. All subjects reached at least 85 percent of their age-predicted — age maximum heart rate. The maximal time on the treadmill in seconds was the measure used to classify cardiorespiratory fitness.
Cardiorespiratory fitness levels were categorized by age and gender-specific quintiles of total treadmill time. The lowest quintile bottom 20 percent was classified as low cardiorespiratory fitness. The middle two quintiles middle 40 percent and the top two quintiles top 40 percent were classified as moderate and high cardiorespiratory fitness, respectively.
The low cardiorespiratory fitness group in this cohort has been previously established as a high-risk category for several health outcomes, including mortality and cardiovascular disease, among this same cohort 226 Although population-based exercise-related prevalence data are limited, we do know some things about what might be expected to occur for several types of physical activity in a defined time period.
The data in table By asking respondents what they were doing when they became injured, the investigators were able to compare various types of common physical activities. Obviously, each of the reported activities is fairly safe; fewer than 3 people out of were injured in any day period. Outdoor bicycle riding appears to be the least risky activity in terms of musculoskeletal injury, and weightlifting was the riskiest.
Although these findings may appear to be intuitive, they emphasize the need to quantify the risks of physical activity for application in the real world. For example, such information can be very useful to a program manager who is beginning a community-based walking program for sedentary adults.
After reviewing the data in table This is useful information for program planning and evaluation. If she puts appropriate preventive strategies in place and none of her participants become injured, she can report that the participants in her program are injured less frequently than what one might expect given the literature. Despite the problems in the scientific literature, we do know some things about the causes and risk factors for physical activity—related musculoskeletal injuries.
These factors have been identified in the scientific literature from studies in epidemiology, biomechanics, physiology, and medicine. As with other health-related outcomes for physical activity and exercise, risk factors conveniently can be classified as modifiable i. Amount and type of current physical activity.
The more physical activity a person performs, the higher the risk of musculoskeletal injury associated with the activity.
Understanding the risks and benefits of physical activity important in public health
This finding has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature. Moreover, different types of physical activity and exercise convey different risks. For example, contact sports are more likely to be related to injury than noncontact sports.
Although exercise and cigarette smoking would appear contradictory behaviors, people whose occupations demand physical activity, such as construction workers and landscapers, may also smoke.
Cigarette smoking seems to increase the risk of physical activity—related musculoskeletal injuries, possibly as a result of vasoconstriction, which restricts the amount of oxygen being delivered to the muscles or connective tissues. The structure of the site and the availability of metabolic nutrients are then altered, and the hypothesis is that this alteration makes the muscle or connective tissue more susceptible to injury.
Low physical fitness level. People who have higher physical fitness levels measured as. VO2max have been consistently shown to be at lower risk of musculoskeletal injury related to physical activity.
Improper use of protective equipment. Bicycle helmets, protective padding for skateboarders, breakaway bases for baseball players, mouthguards for certain sports, shoes—all of these are examples of protective equipment that, when properly used, can prevent musculoskeletal injuries associated with physical activity. Environmental conditions can be considered either nonmodifiable or modifiable.
If conditions are not conducive to physical activity or could increase the risk of injury during physical activity, venues can be changed, activities can be rescheduled, or the type of physical activity can be modified e. Changes in the musculoskeletal system that occur with aging result in older people being more likely to be injured than younger people doing the same activity. A history of injury is one of the most consistent risk factors for injury during physical activity reported in the literature.
People who have been injured previously are more likely to be injured in the future than those who have not. This is a strong rationale for efforts to prevent injuries from occurring in the first place.
Amount of physical activity in the past history. Much of what we know in the area of physical activity and musculoskeletal injury comes from studies of military recruits who participate in basic training involving substantial physical activity.
Recruits who were physically active prior to the training were less likely to be injured during the training. Again, this finding makes a powerful case for injury prevention.
Among the many factors that have been hypothesized are varus, or bowlegs an abnormal inward angle of a bone ; valgus, or knock-knees an abnormal outward angle of a bone ; pes cavus an abnormally high foot arch ; and pes planovalgus flat feet.
Many anatomical problems can be reversed through medical intervention. Environmental, or external, conditions.