High-Fructose Corn Syrup - Diabetes Self-Management
This fact has been supported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the American Diabetes Association who state that the primary causes of diabetes are . The internet claims that high fructose corn syrup causes diabetes. Based on weak evidence, people have tried to link HFCS to Type 2 diabetes. When it comes to junk foods, are all sugars equal? Not according to new research, which found a link between the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup and.
However, rodents are resistant to fructose because they synthesize vitamin C, have low uric acid concentrations, and have good endothelial function 3. If uric acid concentrations are raised 9 or if low doses are prolonged 10then insulin resistance is readily induced. The variability in human studies can also be explained by a clarification of fructose metabolism 3.
For example, fructose uniquely up-regulates its own transporter Glut5 and metabolism fructokinase 7and, thereby, the more fructose one eats, the more sensitive one becomes to its effects. This is a potential explanation for the fact that obese persons appear to be more sensitive to the lipogenic effects of acute fructose ingestion than are nonobese persons 6. Fructose consumption is associated with weight gain, but, as Livesey and Taylor discuss, that association has not been consistently shown in short-term clinical trials.
Nevertheless, fructose does not appear to trigger the endocrine signals involved in the long-term control of energy balance to the same extent as does glucose 8. Ingestion of glucose stimulates insulin secretion, which also results in the release of leptin by adipocytes and the inhibition of ghrelin secretion from the gastrointestinal tract, and these alterations stimulate centers in the brain that regulate satiety and energy homeostasis.
However, fructose does not acutely stimulate insulin, which would lead to attenuated leptin and ghrelin responses In one study, subjects fed fructose reported a greater appetite the following day than did glucose-fed controls Chronic administration of fructose also may result in leptin resistance. In one study, rats fed fructose for 4 mo developed leptin resistance and, when switched to high-fat high-energy diets, showed greater energy intake and weight gain than did starch-fed controls Fructose does not acutely raise blood glucose.
As such, fructose has a lower glycemic index than do starch-based foods, and it has been used as an energy source in diabetes patients because it may aid glycemic control. The conclusion by Livesey and Taylor that, in a small number of studies, HbA1c was lowered in subjects receiving fructose is consistent with this finding.
HFCS & DIABETES
Whereas low catalytic doses of fructose may improve glucose control in diabetes patients, the effects of fructose in inducing features of metabolic syndrome, stimulating the production of advanced glycation endproducts, and causing cataracts in diabetic animals make fructose a poor choice for a diabetes patient, a conclusion also held by the American Diabetes Association Indeed, we have proposed that it is the fructose content of sweeteners sucrose and HFCS, which have a relatively high glycemic index due to the presence of glucose that is largely responsible for correlation of the glycemic index with cardiovascular disease in persons without diabetes and that a better index for cardiovascular risk may be a fructose index based on the percentage and amount of fructose in various foods 3.
Fructose is a monosaccharide, or simple sugar, which means that its basic structure consists of six carbon atoms joined in a ring.
Like other dietary sugars, fructose provides about 15 calories per teaspoon and is digested in and absorbed from the small intestine. However, there are important differences in the way fructose is handled by the body compared with other sugars.
Fructose is also found in honey, maple syrup, agave syrup, brown rice syrup, and in small amounts in a scattering of vegetables. In addition, fructose is present in the commercially prepared liquid sweetener known as high-fructose corn syrup, or HFCS. High-fructose corn syrup is formed by a complex process in which corn is first processed into cornstarch, which is then treated with enzymes to form corn syrup. Because it is inexpensive, mixes well with other ingredients, and helps keep foods moist, high-fructose corn syrup is widely used by the food industry as an alternative to sucrose in many processed and prepared foods and beverages.
There are two common types of high-fructose corn syrup now used in the United States: This is because glucose is carried into cells throughout the body by the hormone insulin, which also regulates the level of glucose in the blood.
High Fructose Corn Syrup and Diabetes | HFCS Diabetes
Fructose, on the other hand, is not easily used by the body for fuel. It is not transported into cells by insulin; instead, fructose is taken from the small intestine to the liver by a special carrier protein known as GLUT Once inside the liver, fructose undergoes a number of complex biochemical reactions that can lead to the formation of a number of different compounds, including glycogen a stored form of glucosetriglycerides a type of fat found in the blood, often linked to weight gain and obesityand some types of fatty acids.
Fructose may also be converted to the chemical uric acid, which in high levels may stress the kidneys and other organs, thereby increasing the risk of developing gout, kidney stones, and other chronic conditions.
This fundamental difference in the way fructose is handled by the body, compared with glucose, has made it the target of studies exploring its possible ill effects on health. Another possible negative effect of high fructose consumption is its potential role in the onset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The following sections describe some of the findings of studies that looked at the role of fructose in various health conditions.
High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.
Obesity One of the most hotly contested topics related to fructose is its potential role in the development of obesity. Consuming a large amount of fructose is known to raise the level of triglycerides in the blood; elevated triglycerides are often seen in obese individuals.
Some researchers believe that high levels of dietary fructose contribute to weight gain by stimulating the deposit of triglycerides in fat tissue throughout the body. The fructose—triglyceride connection was explored in a small clinical study conducted at the University of Texas, published inin which six healthy volunteers were fed one of three different breakfast drinks daily, with the drink chosen at random.
Other studies have yielded similar results, including one conducted at the University of Pennsylvania that enrolled 12 normal-weight women. Women who drank the fructose-sweetened beverage also displayed significantly lower levels of leptin and higher levels of ghrelin — two hormones associated positively and negatively, respectively, with appetite control. An imbalance of these hormones is believed to play a role in obesity in many individuals.
Drinking high-fructose beverages also led to higher blood levels of potentially harmful uric acid.
High Fructose Corn Syrup Fuelling Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic
Hypertension Two recently published studies show that a moderate to high intake of fructose may be linked to an increased risk of hypertension — possibly by causing the kidneys to absorb extra water and sodium. And in a small clinical trial conducted at the Mateu Orfila Hospital in Spain, researchers fed 74 healthy men grams of supplemental fructose a day about 3—4 times the amount most people get in their diets for two weeks.
In addition, half of the men received allopurinol, a medicine used to lower blood levels of uric acid and relieve the painful symptoms of gout.
At the end of the study, both blood pressure and uric acid levels were significantly higher in men who did not receive the allopurinol. Blood lipids, glucose, and insulin Other studies have looked at levels of blood lipids, glucose, and insulin in relation to fructose intake.
In researchers at the University of California followed 23 overweight and obese adults, aged 43—70, for 10 weeks to measure the effects of drinking sugar-sweetened beverages. At the end of the 10 weeks, participants who had drunk the fructose-sweetened beverages showed significantly higher levels of blood triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, as well as greater abdominal adipose fat tissue.
They also had higher fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. In contrast, consuming the glucose-sweetened drinks had little or no effect on these measures.
At the end of the study, these participants showed an increase in abdominal fat, reduced insulin sensitivity, and higher levels of blood triglycerides — to a greater degree than did a control group of eight people with no family history of diabetes, who received the same treatment.The Role of Fructose, Sucrose, and High-fructose Corn Syrup in Diabetes
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Another concern about fructose is its possible role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLDa liver disorder that is more common in people with Type 2 diabetes than in the general population.
NAFLD is marked by a buildup of fat in the liver that causes inflammation and scarring, sometimes leading to liver failure. Fructose, research suggests, may contribute to the onset of NAFLD by way of its conversion to triglycerides in the liver. In a study of adults conducted at Duke University inconsuming more than seven fructose-sweetened beverages per week was linked to a greater degree of a type of liver damage called fibrosis.
In participants ages 48 and up, fructose intake was also associated with greater inflammation of the liver. The scientists conducting the study concluded that habitual consumption of fructose may lead to liver damage and set the stage for chronic liver disease. Conflicting results Not all studies, however, paint as negative a picture of fructose and HFCS as the ones described above.
- High Fructose Corn Syrup and Type 2 Diabetes
- HFCS & DIABETES
- High-Fructose Corn Syrup and Your Type 2 Diabetes Management Plan
Some researchers have found no connection between fructose intake and various health-related measures. Among participants in three large national studies of diet and disease risk, fructose from sweetened sodas, fruit juices, and fruit was not linked to high blood pressure, according to a analysis. Participants ate more after the diet drink, but there was no significant difference among the other beverages.
Finally, a study of 30 lean women conducted at the University of Rhode Island that measured blood glucose and insulin levels after consumption of beverages found no difference between those sweetened with HFCS and those sweetened with sucrose.