the crime–terror nexus was consolidated: the rise of transnational organised terrorist groups, the relationship between organised crime and terrorism remains. Distinctions between organized crime and new terrorism, as distinguished from .. professional guidance extended by Professor Feroz Khan as the second reader. the relationship He claims that in spite of devoting billions of dollars to. conduct research on the relationship between organized crime, conflict and . attention of the international community to terrorism and violent extremism. dynamics, and have an even greater need for such information and advice
In Syria, France supports and finances many projects helping to stabilize the regions taken back from the terrorist group Daesh and actively works at the diplomatic level to find a credible political solution to the Syrian crisis.
Created in Februaryat the instigation of the government leaders in the region, the G5 Sahel is an institutional framework for monitoring regional cooperation with the aim of coordinating the security and development policies of its members. Launched in Julythe Sahel Alliance reinforces the action of the G5 Sahel with a focus on the following five areas: Scaling up action by the European Union France is also taking action at European level to improve and strengthen the tools available to the European Union for combating terrorism.
In the past several years, France and its partners have made several notable advances: The creation of a European Passenger Name Record system that will help better monitor air travel; The strengthening of cooperation with the digital platforms to combat the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes within the framework of the EU Internet Forum; The mobilization of European tools of asset freezing and seizure tools; The bolstering of arms trafficking measures; The establishment of new rules to prevent terrorist financing and money-laundering; The reinforcement of Europol, and especially its European Counter Terrorism Centre.
Enhancing international cooperation Because terrorist groups represent a global threat, France is taking action with its partners to enhance international cooperation when it comes to fighting terrorism in many areas, including: Preventing radicalization and curbing terrorist propaganda France conducts high-level dialogue with its main partners in the area of preventing radicalization and participates in multilateral discussions on this issue.
Efforts to stop the use of the Internet for terrorist purposes remain a key focus of our counterterrorism action. France is conducting high-level dialogue with digital companies to achieve rapid and lasting withdrawal in one hour maximum of terrorist content online.
Working to combat foreign terrorist fighters FTF France is involved in different work aiming to contain the threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters, in the appropriate international bodies, notably the United Nations, and within the Global Counterterrorism Forum GCTFwhich brings together 29 countries and the European Union.
Working to tackle terrorist financing With its partners, France is working to identify and to drain all the terrorist financing sources. Representatives from 70 countries and leaders of some 20 international and regional organizations and specialized agencies attended.
In their final statement, Member States committed to reinforce their legal frameworks and their intelligence cooperation. For example, the group Islamic State also known as Daesh, ISIS and ISIL seeks to establish a new theologically driven state in the Middle East and promises fighters from all over the world better living conditions and pay than they might achieve in their home countries. The ability to travel across borders more freely because of globalisation and the economic resources available to Islamic State in the form of oil make this possible.
Individuals may also join a terrorist organisation because they strongly empathise and identify with the group even if they are not directly affected by the cause. Global online media can facilitate this identification by giving a cause a global appeal.
It is important to note that what motivates individuals to join and remain in transnational terrorist organisations is not necessarily the same as the wider goals of those groups. A key way of understanding why individuals join and remain part of transnational terrorist groups is radicalisation theory. It suggests that there are pathways to becoming a radical or terrorist and that it is a dynamic and very individualised process.
Terrorists may be female, married, old, rich, have children — or not. Attempts to profile behaviours have therefore not been successful. The signs were problematic because they were so broad in their scope that almost everyone was potentially a suspect.
What radicalisation research does show is that a quest for identity and greater significance in the world together with empathy for those who are suffering makes an individual more vulnerable to terrorist messages that appear to offer solutions Silke Research also shows that an individual with friends or family involved with terrorism or supportive of terrorist views is more likely to join a terrorist organisation than someone with no connections at all Wiktorowicz As a result, transnational lone-wolf actors are extremely rare despite their high profile and the media attention they receive.
At the group level, goals are also transnational. This is best illustrated by looking at Al-Qaeda and Islamic State. These groups utilise a global religious language to create an understanding of global politics that divides the world in two. On one side is the world of Islam.
This is a place of goodness, where religious laws are upheld and Muslims are not oppressed.
On the other side is the world of war where Muslims are oppressed by unjust and tyrannical leaders. This enables them to tap into local political grievances and give them a global religious veneer, or to highlight global incidents and claim that they are related to their local cause. It is also important to note that while most of the coverage of terrorist events seems to focus on high profile events in Western states, the majority of those killed in terrorist attacks worldwide since have actually been Muslims, living in Muslim-majority countries.
This is because of a range of factors. First, it is easier to target less well-protected and defended sites in poorer Muslim-majority countries. Finally, violent actions are often targeted to alter the relations between governments and citizens in the Muslim world and improve the strategic position of the terrorist group Mustafa and Brown Activities Despite the consequences of transnational terrorism primarily being felt in Muslim majority-countries, fear and awareness of the threats is felt strongly in Europe and North America.
That message is to be heard by three groups of people. The first are civilians either local or globally who witness the events. The second are governments which are called upon to respond to the terrorist violence. Finally, the third are potential supporters who are attracted to join by the terrorist actions.
France’s International Action Against Terrorism
We will now look at each of these three groups in turn. Transnational terrorist groups focus on the location of attacks as much as, if not more than, who is attacked in order to generate a wide message. The importance of location is demonstrated by the attacks in Paris in by the Islamic State group. This targeting strategy is in contrast to that of groups which may act across borders — such as the Tehrik-e-Taliban, working in both Afghanistan and Pakistan, or Boko Haram, operating in Nigeria and neighbouring countries — but for which the local political scene remains key.
They target beauty shops, police stations and market squares because they see these as opposed to the way of life they want to establish in their lands. However, this is not to say these groups do not target individuals. Schools are targets because they are seen to promote state agendas, and schoolgirls are targets because these groups wish girls to have an Islamic education that focuses exclusively on domestic responsibilities and learning the Quran.
In addition, the Nigerian military was forced to take a more active stance against Boko Haram due to global outrage over the kidnappings.
The second feature of transnational terrorism is that activities are sometimes designed to provoke states into action as well as generate fear in populations. Attacks are frequently symbolic in purpose and often have a high casualty rate for maximum shock value. Here, attacks are designed to provoke states into doing something to prove they are protecting civilians, even when that action may undermine the values they live by or end up being so costly that popular support for government is eroded.
This terrorist strategy was first formulated by Che Guevara, a leader of revolutionary communist movements in Cuba against the American-sponsored authoritarian Batista government. Their attacks are seen to have provoked ever-greater Chinese crackdowns on the civil liberties of people living in affected provinces in order to provide security and to demonstrate the strength of the central government.
Yet the government has failed to reduce the number or severity of the attacks and also failed to stop people joining the separatists. Some have argued that European counter-terrorism policies are more reactionary than effective because they follow the same pattern of government suppression of human rights in the name of security as the Chinese example. The expectation of many terrorist groups is that, in time, ever greater numbers will realise they are oppressed and join resistance groups or that, with sufficient coverage, the international community will come to support their cause.
The example of Palestine underlines this well, since, despite decades of political struggle — which has included terrorist tactics — to establish Palestinian independence from Israel, the Palestinian cause remains relatively popular domestically and internationally.
On the other hand, rather than creating something an independent Palestinethis tactic may also be used to destroy something. By this logic, first Al-Qaeda and later the Islamic State group pursue strategies that aim to grind down the global power and image of the United States so that it may no longer be willing or able to interfere in Muslim lands. In the past, countries have managed to resist reacting to these sorts of violent action by terrorists. However, with public and media scrutiny operating at speed and levels not previously encountered, the ability of governments, especially democratically elected ones, to resist pressure is significantly reduced.
Pressure is also placed on governments by allies and neighbours demanding support and action. For example, there has been a considerable chilling of relations between Thailand and Malaysia since because Thai authorities believe Malaysia to be turning a blind eye to Thai Muslim separatists operating across the border.
France’s International Action Against Terrorism
Finally, the third reason for terrorist violence is to recruit members and reinforce loyalty and membership among existing supporters. Extremely violent or highly technical attacks demonstrate the capability and will of the group carrying out the attack and its overall support.
We see support for Islamic State coming from citizens in nations of every region because their attacks are dramatic and spectacular, which raises the profile of the group and demonstrates their military mastery.
Mandaville calls this the myth of success. Islamic State group videos and propaganda frequently assert the weakness of the opposition as demonstrated by their deaths. The videos dehumanise their opposition, treating them like cattle or computer game characters in first-person shooters.
In its version of Grand Theft Auto, the city is Baghdad and the people opposing you are the police and the military. This is clearly designed to recruit and sustain membership by linking to Western masculine experiences Kang Organisation and resources Managing such a transnational organisation and connecting to multiple locations and identities requires considerable logistical and organisational capability.
One of the main claims about transnational terrorist groups is that they are not hierarchical in structure but rather cell-like and even anarchical, lacking a formal leader. He characterised Al Qaeda as a loose-knit amorphous organisation, a position which was hotly contested by Bruce Hoffman Hoffman seems to have lost the argument, as terrorist organisations are becoming increasingly decentralised as they take advantage of new technologies, forms of communication and other aspects of globalisation.
Consequently, communicating with transnational terrorist groups can be difficult. Negotiators cannot be sure the people they are talking to are representative of the group or have sufficient leverage to influence other members of the group, and splinter groups are more likely under these conditions. There are risks and vulnerabilities for terrorist organisations associated with this approach, notably in relation to information and operational security, coordination issues and resilience.
There are also advantages in terms of longevity: Rather than focusing on individuals, it is more helpful to focus on processes. One of the key processes within transnational terrorist organisations is the distribution and acquisition of money and equipment. Here we see the connections to transnational crime — particularly the smuggling of human organs, drugs and guns and human trafficking.
Criminals can provide terrorist groups with whatever they require, provided the price is right, and terrorists will engage in or tolerate criminal activities when it serves their needs. Failed states offer fertile ground for possible and profitable connections between terrorism and criminality.Dr. Vanessa Neumann's talk "The Terrorist- Criminal Nexus"