Education and religion relationship

Education and religion

education and religion relationship

The relationship between the level of religiosity and the level of education has been studied A Pew Center study about religion and education around the world in , found that Jews are most educated religious group around in the world. LSU Sociology Professor Samuel Stroope recently penned a research article that examines the relationship between religion and educational. Religion is an important factor in education for various reasons. They are there to inform the relationship between religion and public schools.

Even countries where one religion plainly predominates should teach about the origins of all religions rather than favour a single one or encourage proselytising.

In Europe, there are various concurrent situations. Education systems generally — and especially the State schools in so-called secular countries — are not devoting enough resources to teaching about religions, or — in countries where there is a state religion and in denominational schools — are focusing on only one religion.

Some countries have prohibited the carrying or wearing of religious symbols in schools. Unfortunately, all over Europe there is a shortage of teachers qualified to give comparative instruction in the different religions, so a European teacher training institute for that needs to be set up at least for teacher trainers.

The Council of Europe assigns a key role to education in the construction of a democratic society,but study of religions in schools has not yet received special attention. The Assembly observes moreover that the three monotheistic religions of the Book have common origins Abraham and share many values with other religions and that the values upheld by the Council of Europe stem from these values.

Accordingly, the Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers: The Assembly also recommends that the Committee of Ministers encourage the governments of member states to ensure that religious studies are taught at the primary and secondary levels of State education, on the basis of the following criteria in particular: It is not a matter of instilling a faith but of making young people understand why religions are the sources of faith for millions; They should be teachers of a cultural or literary discipline.

However, specialists in another discipline could be made responsible for this education; Religion is an important aspect of European culture and plays a significant role for many people throughout Europe. However, it has become clear that — particularly in so-called secular countries — education systems are not devoting enough resources to teaching about religions, or — in countries where there is a state religion and in faith schools — are focusing on only one religion.

At the same time, religious traditions are dying out in many families. As a result, more and more young people lack the bearings they need to help them understand the societies in which they live and to which they face.

It was therefore deemed necessary to consider the role of education systems with regard to religion. Earlier committee activities 4. In its report on religion and democracy Doc. However, democracy and religion need not be incompatible and can be valid partners. By tackling societal problems, the authorities can remove many of the causes of religious extremism. Education is the key way to combat ignorance, stereotypes and misunderstanding of religions. Governments should also do more to guarantee freedom of conscience and religious expression, to develop education about religions, to encourage dialogue with and between religions and to promote the cultural and social expression of religions.

During an exchange of views with the committee on 23 June the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Mr Gil-Robles, said that many of the crisis situations which he had encountered were deeply rooted in cultural and religious tensions. The Commissioner also underlined the need to consider the setting up of a European teacher training institute for the comparative study of religions. On 17 November the rapporteur and others tabled a motion for a recommendation on the comparative study of religions and intercultural dialogue.

The motion points out the key role that the Council of Europe assigns to education in the construction of a democratic society and states that the comparative study of religions in schools has not yet received special attention.

education and religion relationship

Knowledge of religions is integral to knowledge of the history of humanity and civilisations. It should be distinguished from belief in or practice of a specific religion. Given the many possible prejudices and stereotypes regarding religions, it is important to have structured, rational instruction in schools.

That would help combat fanaticism, fundamentalism and xenophobia more effectively. The Bureau of the Assembly asked the Committee on Culture, Science and Education for a report and the latter appointed me as rapporteur at its meeting on 29 January Some however, especially among those aimed at the wider public, very often display a regrettable ignorance of religions, as shown for instance by the frequent unwarranted parallels drawn between Islam and certain fundamentalist and radical movements.

The committee held its first exchange of views on the subject on 18 March The issue is a complex and sensitive one, involving deeply rooted religious, cultural and historical beliefs. It is therefore a subject that needs to be treated with great caution.

Ignorance often gives rise to intolerance, fanaticism, fundamentalism and terrorism. Schools play a key role because they impart knowledge of and respect for others. Better knowledge of others would help develop intercultural dialogue and religious tolerance.

Schools should teach religions, their history, their philosophies and their practices as a comparative study and in a structured and reasoned manner. The committee members think that as well as concerning itself with comparative study of religions and intercultural dialogue the report should adopt a wider approach to the subject. School courses should teach not only factual knowledge but also about the nature of religious experience.

They should not confine themselves to European religions but extend to other continents' religions now represented in Europe. Religious instruction must not be bound by national stereotypes. A series of hearings enabled me to collect relevant views on the question, for example from religious leaders and history teachers. It is also important to take in the non-religious as well as the religious stance. As religious beliefs are deeply held, there has to be a modicum of consensus as a starting point.

He pointed out that while teachers were responsible for actual teaching, a range of parties were involved in education: New syllabuses should take into account that the Bible and the Koran were not scientific documents. He raised the question of whether this subject area was the sole preserve of history teachers. Religion might also fit into the education for citizenship syllabus.

At all events, it should not be left entirely to teachers to draw up the new syllabuses. The following are some of the comments made by committee members: At the end of the discussion the committee decided to hold a thorough hearing with the representatives of the main religions to be found in Europe. This hearing, held in Paris on 2 Decemberdid not have a structured programme.

Instead of a series of statements followed by questions and answers, the aim was to enable committee members and the invited religious leaders to debate freely on issues relating to school teaching of religion.

Is it necessary to teach about religions in schools and why? What should be the core content of religious instruction? What ways and means should be considered? Who should teach about religions and in what contexts? What account should be taken of the different religions in drawing up syllabuses and in teacher training?

The following religious leaders were invited on a personal basis and not as official representatives of their respective religions: A number of interesting ideas emerged at the hearing: People therefore had to be able to receive, practise and express education and religion at the local level.

Bishop Athanasios - Religion should not be a mere item of knowledge complete with its historic and sociological aspects: Religious education also provided an opportunity for developing the spiritual dimension in students. Bishop Athanasios - European education systems varied widely, and consequently did not all share the same point of view on religious education. Traditions in the educational field differed widely, as did the wishes of families.

Is Religion An Issue In Our Relationship? - {THE AND} Christine & Jason

Religions had to be explained not only as a cultural phenomenon but also as a living religious experience. It was not a case of transmitting a faith, which was a matter for the different religions, but of helping young people to realise why millions of people drew on these sources.

There was no single truth for all places, times and individuals. It was important for the younger generation to understand religion. How was anyone to understand the Renaissance, art, literature or the history of ideas without reference to faith?

There was no one exclusive pathway to salvation. Religion should be taught in schools, in the sense of their underlying meaning rather than religious practice and dogmas. Teachers had to be experts in their own religion. Rabbi Gutman - Religious education had to be encouraged as it developed the human spirit and deeper understanding of humanity. Education was impossible without information, but should not be confined to information, as it also had to embrace training.

Religious education should not be ascribed secondary importance. Religious education should take account of inclusiveness accepting those who were differentunderstanding the learning process, understanding development in a given context and lastly the idea of all individuals as travelling companions. Reverend Hullah - Religious education should consist in providing diversified information on the various religions rather than teaching about their spiritual and moral aspects.

Education and Religion

It was an intellectual exercise, which involved informing students about the foundations and sources of religions, depending on intellectual level and age, and on believers' positions on these sources; teaching the content of the religion: Rector Oubrou - Knowledge of religions was essential in democratic societies facing an upsurge in religious intolerance and fundamentalist extremism.

Religion is certainly not the only reason for this variance; many other factors may play an equal or greater role, including economic, geographic, cultural factors and political conditions within a country or region.

The chapter begins with an historical look at ways in which scholars suggest that various religions have influenced education, especially the spread of literacy among laypeople. This section also explores how historical patterns sometimes help explain contemporary patterns in educational attainment. Next, this chapter considers hypotheses about how the cultural norms and doctrines of a religious group may affect educational attainment. It concludes with a look at some leading theories for the stark differences in educational attainment between Christians and Muslims living in sub-Saharan Africa.

In many instances, the foundations of that infrastructure are based on facilities originally built by religious leaders and organizations to promote learning and spread the faith. In India, the most learned men and sometimes women of ancient times were residents of Buddhist and Hindu monasteries. In the Middle East and Europe, Christian monks built libraries and, in the days before printing presses, preserved important earlier writings produced in Latin, Greek and Arabic.

In many cases, these religious monasteries evolved into universities. Other universities, particularly in the United States and Europe, were built by Christian denominations to educate their clergy and lay followers.

education and religion relationship

Most of these institutions have since become secular in orientation, but their presence may help explain why populations in the U. Apart from their roles in creating educational infrastructure, religious groups were foundational in fostering societal attitudes toward education. Islam There is considerable debate among scholars over the degree to which Islam has encouraged or discouraged secular education over the centuries.

Early Muslims made innovative intellectual contributions in such fields as mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, medicine and poetry. They established schools, often at mosques, known as katatib and madrasas. Under Muslim rule, southern Spain was a center of higher learning, producing such figures as the renowned Muslim philosopher Averroes. These events included foreign invasions, first by the Mongols, who destroyed the House of Wisdom inand then by Christians, who pushed Muslims out of Spain in Some scholars argue that the educational decline began earlier, in the 11th and 12th centuries, and was rooted in institutional changes.

In particular, contends Harvard University Associate Professor of Economics Eric Chaney, the decline was caused by an increase in the political power of religious leaders who prioritized Islamic religious learning over scientific education. It became dominated by the idea that divine revelation is superior to other types of knowledge, and that religious education should consist of learning only what Islamic scholars had said and written in the past.

education and religion relationship

Columbia University history professor George Saliba writes: Christianity In the view of some scholars, the 16th-century Protestant Reformation was a driving force for public education in Europe.

Protestant reformers promoted literacy because of their contention that everyone needed to read the Bible, which they viewed as the essential authority on doctrinal matters.

Driven by this theological conviction, religious leaders urged the building of schools and the translation of the Bible into local languages — and Reformation leader Martin Luther set the example by translating the Bible into German. The Scopes Monkey trial in further highlighted the rift between science and some branches of Christianity over the theory of evolution, a contentious relationship that endures even today.

These missionary activities, the scholars conclude, have had a long-lasting positive impact on access to schooling and educational attainment levels in the region. Research by Baylor University sociologist Robert D. As a result, they established schools to promote literacy wherever they went and translated the Bible into indigenous languages. Except where they were in direct competition with Protestant missionaries, Catholic missionaries concentrated on educating African elites rather than the masses, Woodberry observes.

And Nunn notes that Protestant missionaries placed greater stress than Catholics on educating women. As a result, Protestants had more long-term impact on the education of sub-Saharan African women.

education and religion relationship

Asma, a professor of philosophy at Columbia College Chicago. From around the fifth century onward, Buddhist monasteries emerged as centers of education, not just for monks but also for laymen. In India, the most famous of these educational centers — Nalanda, in what is now Bihar state — is said to have had 10, students from many different countries, and offered courses in what then constituted philosophy, politics, economics, law, agriculture, astronomy, medicine and literature.

When the Thai government introduced Western-style, secular education around the beginning of the 20th century, it used monastic schools as the vehicle for reaching the wider population. Hindu scriptures urge adherents to seek knowledge through dialogue and questioning, and to respect their teachers. To start with, the most authoritative Hindu scriptures are the Vedas, a word that comes from the Sanskrit root word vd, which means knowledge, Rambachan says.

education and religion relationship

University of Florida religion professor Vasudha Narayanan says Hindus regard two types of knowledge as necessary and worthwhile. The first, vidya, is everyday knowledge that equips one to earn a decent and dignified life.

The second, jnana, is knowledge or wisdom that brings awareness of the divine. This is achieved by reading and meditating on Hindu scriptures. Historically, the caste system in India was a huge barrier to the spread of mass literacy and education. Formal education was reserved for elite populations. But in the seventh and eighth centuries, the vernacular language of Tamil began to be used for religious devotion in southern India, which led to greater access to all kinds of knowledge for a wider group of people.

Later, in the 18th and 19th centuries, both secular and religious education came to be seen by Hindus as a universal right, and it gradually began to be extended to all members of the faith. Judaism High levels of Jewish educational attainment may be rooted in ancient religious norms, according to some recent scholarship. The Torah encourages parents to educate their children. This prescription was not mandatory, however, until the first century.

Sometime around 65 C. A few years later, in the year 70, the Roman army destroyed the Second Temple following a Jewish revolt. Temple rituals had been a pillar of Jewish religious life. To replace them, Jewish religious leaders emphasized the need for studying the Torah in synagogues.

Religion and Education Around the World

They also gave increased importance to the earlier religious decree on educating sons, making it a compulsory religious duty for all Jewish fathers. Over the next few centuries, a formal school system attached to synagogues was established. Jewish scholarship was enhanced in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the late sixth century, by the emergence of Talmudic academies of Sura and Pumbedita in what is now Iraq. In the late Middle Ages, centers of Jewish learning, including the study of science and medicine, emerged in what is today northern Spain and southern France.

Until the early 19th century, however, most education of Jewish boys was primarily religious. This intellectual movement sought to blend secular humanism with the Jewish faith and to encourage openness to secular scholarship among Jews.

At the same time, they were strong proponents of reforming Jewish education by including secular subjects, such as European literature and the natural sciences. This educational project often brought the reformists into conflict with more orthodox Jewish religious leaders. Some scholars have noted that from the Reformation onward, Protestant groups encouraged educating women, with effects that still resonate today.